The United States played an important role in the negotiations on the Montreal Protocol. In the 1970s, evidence emerged that CFCs used in everyday household products, such as air conditioners and refrigerators, reduced the earth`s protective ozone layer and increased the level of ultraviolet rays reaching the planet`s surface. The United States, allies and stakeholders, supported strict controls on the production and consumption of SDOs such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons; Promoting international cooperation; The Committee on Food, Research and Policy of Food Research and Policy and Policy of the United States In 1988, the U.S. Senate unanimously approved the ratification of the Montreal Protocol by the United States and the treaty has continued to be supported by all parties over the past thirty years. Throughout its history, the Montreal Protocol has received the support of the vast majority of American industry as well as environmentalists. The Montreal Protocol is a model of cooperation. It is the result of the international awareness and consensus that ozone depletion is a global problem, both for its causes and for its effects. The protocol is the result of an extraordinary scientific study process, negotiations between the economic and environmental communities and international diplomacy. It`s a monumental performance. President Ronald Reagan 1988 The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit that did not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) held in Kyoto (Every five years, countries should assess their progress in implementing the agreement in a process known as the Global Balance Sheet; the first is scheduled for 2023. Countries set their own targets and there is no implementation mechanism to ensure that they achieve these goals. Paris Agreement, 2015. The most important global agreement to date, the Paris Agreement, obliges all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions. Governments set targets known as national contributions, with a view to preventing the average global temperature from rising by 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to strive to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to achieve zero net emissions globally, where the amount of greenhouse gases emitted is equivalent to the amount removed from the atmosphere in the second half of the century. (This is also called climate neutral or carbon neutral.) Emission limits do not include emissions from international aviation and shipping.  Although Belarus and Turkey are included in Schedule I of the agreement, they do not have emission targets since they were not parties to Schedule I at the time of the adoption of the protocol.  Kazakhstan has no objective, but has stated that it wishes to become a contracting party to Schedule I of the Convention.  The United States signed the protocol on November 12, 1998, during the Clinton presidency. However, in order to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already adopted the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution in 1997, in which it expressed the rejection of an international agreement that did not require developing countries to reduce their emissions and “would seriously harm the U.S.
economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95-0.  Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty, it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not meet other Kyoto targets.  The Canadian government announced on 12th