The demilitarization of Idlib was an agreement between Turkey and Russia to create a demilitarized zone (DMZ) in the rebel-held Syrian governorate of Idlib, which was to be patrolled by Russian and Turkish forces. On September 17, 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan agreed on the creation of a buffer zone in Idlib.  The most obvious problem is that the May 4 agreement was signed by Lavrentie, Önal and Ansari – a Russian, a Turk and an Iranian. No Syrian put his pen on the newspaper, although it was written to end what, despite all international participation, remains a civil war between Syrians. After several months of intense fighting between the government and rebel forces, the Syrian government announced a unilateral ceasefire conditional on compliance with the rebels` initial conditions of demilitarization in 2018.   According to reports, most of the rebel groups accepted the offer.   Shortly after the ceasefire came into effect, Hayat Tahrir al-Sham stated that they would categorically refuse to leave an area under their control, which was an essential requirement of both the original agreement and the conditional ceasefire.   The next day, the government announced the end of the ceasefire and the resumption of military operations, citing the refusal of rebel groups to withdraw from the area as a reason for the ceasefire`s failure.   A considerable part of the DMZ`s territory was then conquered by the Syrian army and its allies in the final phase of the offensive. Another ceasefire was announced in late August, confirming the government`s benefits.
Some rebel groups, meanwhile, have expressed their refusal to comply with the agreement and withdraw from the remaining “demilitarized” zones, signaling that the agreement would not be revived.  6. In-depth examination of the situation in the Idlib de-escalation zone and insists on the need to restore calm on the ground by fully implementing all agreements related to Idlib, in particular the memorandum of 17 September 2018. expressed deep concern about the increasing presence and terrorist activity of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham and other affiliated terrorist groups designated by the UN Security Council, which pose a threat to civilians inside and outside the de-escalation zone. Reaffirmed in this regard its commitment to continue cooperation with a view to the permanent elimination of ISIS/ISIL, the Al-Nusra Front and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida or Daesh/ISIL, as well as other terrorist groups, as designated by the United Nations Security Council; While deploring the civilian casualties, they agreed, on the basis of previous agreements, to take concrete measures to ensure the protection of the civilian population, in accordance with international humanitarian law, as well as the security of the military personnel of the guarantors inside and outside the Idlib de-escalation zone. The Astana agreement provides that signatory states and their Syrian allies must “take all necessary measures” to combat UN-sanctioned jihadists, such as the self-proclaimed Islamic State and Tahrir al-Sham, successor to the nusra Front allied with al-Qaeda in Syria, both inside and outside de-escalation zones. . . .